I am indebted to the landowners, farmers and locals that I have met on this journey for providing information regarding their specific mill and access to mill sites. I am warmed by their generosity and willingness to show and share their family history and links to mills.
This could not be done without them and I hope to meet many more in the future.
Doffer or Doffing - Job in a Weaving Mill to replace the empty bobbins of yarn with full bobbins.
Lapper - One of the last stages of linen manufacturing. Lappers measure and press the linen ready for market.
Retting - This is the process in which the flax is put under water for 14 days in the retting dam or flax dam, or lint hole or Dub (North Antrim and Lake District). A chemical reaction takes and the bonds holding together the fibre and the woody stem are loosened.
Scutcher - Scutchers were employed in Scutch or Flax Mills. They held flax against the wooden blade which took off the outer core.
Scutching - The process in which the flax is made limp and the fibre is revealed.
Tow - Short fibres of flax.Can be used for various uses such as coarse clothing and material, ropes and plumbers still use it today for seals and joints.
Cambric Linen - A very fine quality of linen cloth. Made in the Cambrai region.
Damask - Linen that has a design on it. Pattern is put on through weaving. Origins in Damascus
Diaper - A quality of linen finer than damask with pattern. It originates from Ypres (D'Ypres) Belgium. Formed by the different directions of the thread.
Huckaback - Huckaback is a weaving pattern slightly uneven that allows for better absorption.
Muslin - A type of cotton material produced in Mosul
Osnaburg - Named after the town in North Germany, this is a type of coarse linen produced with flax and tow. Later it was made with cotton to produce overalls, sacking.
Silesias' - From the Silesia region of Germany, produced in the late medieval to modern times. It was originally spun using the spindle. It was made to imitate cotton and was in high demand during the 17 and 1800's
Tick - A linen case stuffed with feathers, flock, chaus. Probably made from coarse flax or tow.
Twill - Linen cloth characterized by parallel diagonal ridges produced by causing the weft threads to pass over one and under two or more threads of the warp, instead of over and under in plain weaving.
Dowlas - Plain cloth made from flax or cotton. Used for sheeting, aprons and linings. Did it originate in the town of Douai in North Eastern France?
Drill - This is a heavy fabric, linen or cotton. It has a diagonal weave. Same pattern as Twill but heavier.
Duck/Duck Canvas - Strong linen material used for sailing boats and ships
Linsey-Woolsey - Coarse twill made from flax warp and woolen weft. Origins in North of England.
Hollands - A cloth imported from Holland, it is plain woven but has a glazed finish which gives it its name.
Worsted cloth - Woolen cloth. Gains its name from Worstead, a town in Norfolk. It is different from ordinary wool cloth due to the difference in spinning technique. A Coarse but lightweight material.
Tow Rag - To refer someone to the short fibres from flax. The short fibres were usually the poor mans cloth so calling someone a Tow Rag means to call them poor or unwanted.
Pop Goes the Weasel - The weasel was a small wooden device that was part of a clock reel for measuring yarn. The reel released pressure which forced the weasel up and to pop. The nursery rhyme derives from this and was brought over by the French Huguenots who established the silk trade in London and further afield.
Flaxen Hair - When the flax has been combed or hackled it resembles long golden strands of hair.
Shuttle bus - The flying shuttle in the loom goes back and forwards time and time again the same as a shuttle bus